- Hypericum perforatum

28/11/2018

St. John's wort


: Hypericaceae ( - Clusiaceae)

 |  |   |  |  |  |   | 

 |  |   |  |  |  |  |   | 

 

-24 , . ( ) .

. (hyper eikon = / ) (- , ). 

(Hyperion) (Helios; , ) .

(perforatum / ) , .

-. , .

.

, ,   "" (Remotiv).

 

.

 

: .

: .

: , .

 

( 0.05%-0.6%, " -0.2% . hypericin -pseudohypericin " ", (biapigenin, quercetrin, rutin), ( phloroglucinol hyperforin*, adhyperforin), (sitosterol), (lutein), (pectin), , .

 

* (hyperforin): ( ), , (1-4).

 

, , (), , , (OCD), , (PMS), .

, , , , , .

 

1:3, 45% – 4-10 " .

0.3% hypericin – 300-900 " .

– 3-12 .

– 20%-30%.

 

(1) UV.

47 ( , -, , , , ), (5).

 

( 0%-5.9%), (6,7).

( -0.0003%)(8).

, (), , , , , , , (9-15).

(16).

2000-2013 -SSRI’s 5 (447 84 ). . , Fluoxetine . , . , . SSRI’s , (403).

( , , ) :

  • (14 , / )(17-23)

  • (5 (24-28); , 3 (25); (26)

  • (5 )(5,29)

  • ( )(30-32)

  • -TSH ( 37 )(33,34)

  • (35)

  • (2 , )(36,37)

  • (, , , , ; 8 ) (38)

  • (39) 26 HIV ( (40,41))

  • ( , )(42)

  • 67(43)

  • (2 ; 3.6 Sertraline (44), , -(45))

  • ( C, 51 )(46)

() ( )(47). .

, (48-54).

 

- (UV), , , 24 (1).

5-10 "(11), HIV ( C) 0.05-0.5 " " (40,41,55,56).

, UV, 2.7-5.4 " ( 7-15 )(57-59), .

( Hypericism), - 10-40 " ( 30-50 )(60-63). 1 " (62).

(27) (7,57).

(1,24-26,47).

16 4.5 ( ), 15 . , (64).

 

(65), , (1,66-68). , , ( )(1).

4-6 , (1).

MAO , (1) ( , ) L-dopa.

(phototoxicity) , UVA / ( ).

-2.7 " UVA (26).

– 10-14 , (67-75).

( Metformin).

10 , . 240-294 , 900 , . 21 6 , -40% . , (399)

 

, (1,10,17-23,68,76).

 

2 " (77,78).

, (genotoxicity) (43,79).

LD50: ; 780 " -4.3 " (80).

 

/ /

 

(81-83) P450 ( CYP 3A4) P-gp.

( ) .

(84-87) hyperforin. pregnane steroid X ( : SXR PXR). , , (88-90) ( CYP3A4) P-gp.

. (82,83) CYP 3A4, (91). , (92) CYP 3A4 , Voriconazole ( -22%).

, (93,94,402) CYP 2C19 -2E1.

(95,96) Ibuprofen -Tolbutamide, CYP2C9, , .

(93,96-99) , CYP 1A2, (100), 8 ( ), (68).

CYP 2D6: (93), (101,102).

, P-gp (103) Vincristine, Vinblastine, , (Epipodophyllotoxins, Etoposide) (Docetaxel, Paclitaxel), .

, (1) ( ),  .

, .

 

(Cyclosporin, Tacrolimus)

.

(40-47%), (5,104-121), (P-gp, CYP 3A4).

, (-0.1%) Cyclosporin (106,108,119).

, (68,122,123) Rapamycin, .

 

: (Digoxin)

.

(18-27%)(87,99,124-126), (87,127), (P-gp).

 

(Fentanyl, Propofol, Sevoflurane, NO)

.

(70,74).

(67-69), (Meperidine) (72,73,128) ( pseudoephedrine).

 

(, SSRI's, SNRI’s, NSRI’s, MAO )

.

() .

Amitriptyline . 900 " , (129), (CYP 3A4, P-gp).

, (68) Imipramine -Amoxapine, SSRI’s Citalopram, Fluvoxamine, Naratriptan, Rizatriptan, Sumatriptan -Zolmitriptan MAO, (128,130-133).

, , (134-140,403).

(141-148)  Paroxetine, Sertraline, Venlafaxine, Trazodone -Nefazodone.

(washout) 2-3 (149).

, .

Buproption – .

58 300 , (dystonia, - ) , 4 . (150).

 

(Cidogrel, Phenprocoumon, Warfarin)

Warfarin . (39%)(151,152).

12 INR (153-155).

Phenprocoumon . (153,156).

Cidogrel  .

, .

, 900 - 10%-20% (157-159).



.
CYP3A4 - CYP2C9 P-gp , . 
Imatinib -Irinotecan, -40% (160,162).
(68,122,123)   Cyclophosphamide, Tamoxifen, Taxol, Etoposide, Dactinomycinn, Amsacrine.
(405)
Abiraterone, Afatinib, Axitinib, Crizotinib, Cyclophosphamide, Dabrafenib, Dasatinib, Enzalutamide, Erlotinib, Etoposide, Everolimus, Exemestane, Gefitinib, Idelalisib, Imatinib,Irinotecan, Lapatinib, Nilotinib, Pazopanib, Pomalidomide, Procarbazine, Regorafenib, Ruxolitinib, Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Tamoxifen, Vandetanib, Vemurafenib
 
, (164), Temozolomide.

 

(Metformin, Gliclazide, Tolbutamide, Rosiglitazone)

Metformin –  .  , , ( ) (400).

Gliclazide – . , (165).

Tolbutamide – . (92) (CYP 2C9), ()(96,99).

Rosiglitazone – . (166).

 

(Nifedipine, Verapamil, Amlodipine)

.

(51-63%)(167-169), (CYP3A4).

, (68) Dilitiazem, .

 

: (Talinolol)

.

(170), (P-gp).

 

(Carbamazepine, Mephenytoin, Phenobarbitone, Phenytoin)

.

, , (164,171,172);

(173) Carbamazepine, (174) mephenytoin.

(175) CYP450.

, (68) Phenobarbital, (122,123) CYP 3A4.

 

(Ethinylestradiol, Desogestrel, Dienogesterol, Norethindrone, Levonorgestrel)

, .

(CYP 3A4), , (110,116,123,153,176-182).

, , (176,181-184).

 

(Cortisol)

.

, (91,185,186).

Prednisolone (187).

 

: (Alprazolam, Midazolam, Quazepam), (Zolpidem)

Alprazolam – . (188), (CYP 3A4).

( ) (99,189,190).

Midazolam – .

(93,98) (CYP 3A4), (11%-79%)(96,105,176,191-193).

, (105,190,193).

Quazepam – . , (194).

Zolpidem ( , ) .

(195).

 

()

.

Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin, Simvastatin – .

(-30%), (196-199), (CYP 3A4 -P-gp).

Pravastatin – (196).

 

(Methylphenidate)

.

(200).

 

: (Ivabradine)

.

, (201).

 

(Theophylline)

.

( ) .

(202) ( ), (203), 15 .

 

(Fexofenadine)

.

(105,192,204), (P-gp).

 

: NNRTI – (Nevirapine)

.

(205), ( -35%), (CYP 3A4, P-gp).

, (68) Delavirdine -Efavirenz, CYP 3A4.

 

: (Indinavir)

.

(49-99%)(206), (CYP 3A4, P-gp).

, (68) Amprenavir, Nelfinavir, Ritonavir -Saquinavir CYP 3A4.

 

(Ketoconazole, Itraconzaole, Voriconazole)

.

(-43%)(207), (CYP 3A4, 2C19, 2C9).

 

Erythromycin

.

(208) (CYP 3A4).

 

: (Finasteride)

.

(209).

 

Chlorzoxazone ( )

.

, (CYP 2E1) - 28%(93,98).

 

(Methadone)

.

, (-47%) (210).

 

(Oxycodone)

.

(211).

 

( Piroxicam, Tetracycline)

.

, (1,27,68,128).

δ-ALA) delta-Aminolevulinic acid) – , ( ), 19 - δ-ALA , (212).

 

(Omeprazole)

.

(-38%)(213), (CYP 3A4, 2C19).

 

(Rhodiola rosea)

     .

-, 250-500 ( 125 ) .

salidroside ( 312 ) - (125 ) (397). (20 3% rosavin -3.12% salidroside, 624 salidroside ) (398).

, .

 

(Remotiv)

( Ze 117  0.2% ),  (<1%).

, ,   . 

,   , ,   Tolbutamide ( ), .

 

(1) , (68,79,214) , (215,216).
(217) 54 ( 615 " ), 56 -56 . . (20.3% 12.5% -8.9%) (5% 4% -0%) . , ; , 3%-5% .
(404) 38 90,128 . , , , . (8.1% 3.3%), (p=0.13) .
, (218-220).
, , (100 "/ ") (221).

 

 

, , (1,79).

, (222).

( -2.5 " )(222,223).

(16% 3% ). (224).

33 705 " , -4.2 , (225).

 

 

 | 

 

( ) , , (6,10,14,15,226-261, 406).

, -SSRI’s.

, , , .

, .

:

  • (410) - (2017) (Hypericum perforatum) . 27 , 3,808 . - 300-1,800 " 12 - (SSRIs). . . , , .
  • 2008, ,   , .   . 29 5489 , 18 , -17 . . -9 , 1.28, -9 1.87.  . , -SSRI,  1.02 -1.00 .  .    : 1. , 2. , 3. (229).
  • (406) 2016, 64 ( 18-70) ( 22-25 HAM-D), (251) 2005. , ( 3-7:1, 3-6% 0.1-0.3%, 6% , 1.5% ) 900 " 6 (paroxetine  20 ")(p<0.001). ( 50% ) (87.1% -60.6% , p=0.017). (71% 42.4%, p=0.001).
  • 2000 (Ze 117) Flouxetine ( -SSRI’s)  -. , 16-24 . 240 (114 )  (126 ). 6 , -11.54 12.2 -SSRI.  CGI . ,  23% ( , , , , , ),  8% . , (239).

900 , 0.3% .

(3-5%), . , , 900-1800 .

, (262-264).

(Seasonal affective disorder), ()(265-267).

 

, (268-270) , , -GABA;

, - (Blood-Brain Barrier) , (1,271).

- ( 0.9 ) 35 . -GABA, (272).

, , (273-275) (Growth Hormone) (273,275,276), . ACTH ( ) (277); (275,276) - (5HT2).

, (273,277) ( (274,275))  (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid), () , dihydroxyphenylglycol. dopamine beta-hydroxylase, (278).

 

, (279-282).

(283-288) (289,290) (quercetin, amentoflavone, biapigenin) .

, (291).

: ()(292), ()(284). (0.5%) 42 , (5%) (900 ), (286). (1.5-3%) Fluoxetine ( -SSRI’s) (293).

1998, , (1,294).

, , (275).

 

, (294).

 

 |  (OCD) | 

 

, , ( ), (, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, )(241,258,295-299).

100-1800 .

, (Piper methysticum).

:

2004 (LI 160) . 151 600 " 6 . -15.39 -6.64 , -15.55 -11.07 . , , , CGI, SCL-90 . .

(295).

2004 173 , 6 . ( , , SCL90R, CGI ) ( 45.4% , 20.9% ). (296).

2009 (MDD) 28 . (1.8 990 " , 9 " -15 " , 3 ) (2.66 50 " -, 3 ) , 4 ( cross-over). Beck Depression Inventory , , , . , (300).

1995 100-120 " , 97 . , . , – 38-39% State-Trait Anxiety Inventory ( : STAI), 19-20% . (241).

2001 ( 0.3% ) (GAD), (Piper methysticum) - ( 280-900 ) (297)

1800 , , , , . 12 .

1800 ; , .

50% 900 , -1500 " ( , -30 -10 )(297).

2003 (GAD), 12 , 450-1800 (298);

( -21 -6 ), Citalopram .

( -14 -1 ).

( )(298).

. 2005 . 40 ( 600-1800 " ) , 12 (301).

 

(OCD) –

2000 (LI 160) . 12 900 , 12 . Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale ( : Y-BOCCS), Clinical Global Impression (: CGI). , . , 7.4 Y-BOCS. , 43% (5 ) CGI, -50% , (8%) (302).

, 2005 , . 60 600-1800 " , 12 . Y-BOCS (3.43) (3.60), . , (303).

 

, (304-309), (304), (309).

, , GABAɑ, GABAb (407), GABA (310), 5-HT2 (409,407,311,312), - -(407).

 

, ( ) ( )(313,314).

:

2010 , . 100 ( 50.4) , 8 . ( ) 3 , 0.2 " ". -54% 32% . -51% 23% , -60% 26% (315).

2009, . 47 40-65 ( 3 ) 2700 , 12 . , , 3 . . ( 2.3 , 1.0 ), ( 3.8 1.8 ). 3 , , (316).

- 2007 77 , . 12 264 ", -1 " , -84 " 0.25 " . KI 4 -12 , (317).

2007 . 6141 -1287 , 6 12 . . , . (318).

1986 12 (60 ) -40 Diazepam ( ), 20 . 72% ( 37% ), 46%

( 31% )(319)

- 2006 (Cimicifuga racemosa) 301 . 16 . -8 2 , -8 , . 245-350 " 0.25 " , - 22.5-41.25 " ( 1 " ). -50% , 19.6% . -41.8% ( 18.9 -11) 12.7% ( 18.9 -16.5) .

(320).

2000, 6 , ( ) 179 , ( , , , ), . KI, -31.4 -18.7 (40% ) 30.3 22.3 (23% ) (321).

1999 (LI 160) . 12 , 2700 , 111 43-65 . (, , , ) ( , , ). (-79%). (322).

- 2009, (Vitex angus castus) . 93 , ( ), . – 300 " ( -1800 " , 990 " , 9 " -18 " ). 3 , 2 , -500 " . 16 .  ( 4, 8 -12) . , (323).

 

(PMS)

( ) .

( ).

2011 -PMS . 170 -PMS , (2 680 " ) (2 ), 8 . ( , , ), ( , ), (, , ) ( , ) -1 ( ) 6 (). -PMS , . (71%) (52%)(324).

2010 -PMS. 36 18-45 (25-35 ) PMS. , (900 " , 0.18% , 3.38% ) .  washout , . PMS . PMS, , , (325).

2005 70 -PMS. (60 , ; ) . : 46.45% , -18.1% (326)

2004, -PMS. 125 -PMS ; 600 " ( 1800 " ) ( ). , . , (327).

-2003 PMS 14 (328). (5400 " , 2.97 " , 27 " -54 " ; -1000 " ) . (16 ), PMS. , AMSQ, PMS-D, PMS-C. 

2003 - (Premenstrual dysphoric disorder), -900 " ; 5 (329). -SSRI’s.

2000 (LI160) . 19 18-50 , -PMS. ( 300 " , 900 " ). . 51%, 50% . : , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , (craving) . (330).

 

( )

, :

2009 160 " 50 18-50. 4 ,  (IELT- intravaginal ejaculatory latency time). (331).

2007 16 35, . 20 " 15-30 , 4 . (IELT), -246 -331 ; 14 16 (87.5%) – – -IELT. ( -4.9 -5.2). (332).

( 2008) 10 , 8 . 4 5 -90 , -58 -131 . 3 , 266 , 391 . 7 10   . 5 (333).

 

 |   | 

 

0.3% , . 90 , 900 " , -1800 . . , . (334,335).

 

. 149 18-55 HSV-1 HSV-2. : ( -) 5%, Dynamiclear – . 2, 3, 8 -14. . 1.9 , , 1.8, 2.4 -4.4 (336).

 

-pseudohypericin (337,338); (339-342), ( )(337,340). (339,341,343,344), (1,40).

 

 | 

 

, :

2010 ; 144 ( 23.5), -3 : , (20% , 80% ' ) 3 16 – -24 . -10 -40, . . -10 -40 . . , (345).

2001 (Calendula officinalis), 24 . - , 320:1000 ( ). 70% -30% . 16 , -37.6% , 15.83% (346).

2014 (ONE)  ( ). 15 76.87 , 10.9 ", 4.8 " . 8.1 . , 4 -11 15 (73%). ONE , . -56.7 , , (347).

(Holoil®)     (Azadirachta indica), . 28 ( , ) . , . (401)

2013 , . 9 1-11 . 50.76 " . . 10-22 . . 6 5 , 7-8 10, -0 10 . . (348).

II 2003 . 1.5% ( ). 18 ( SCORAD 44.5) , ( ) . 4 . ,   ( 7, 14 -28). Staphylococcus aureus , . (336).

 

, (350-352)  COX -LOX, ROS (353) (354) NO.

(355), , (356).

, -amentoflavone (357), Indomethacin ( -NSAIDs).

-, (carrageenan; )(352,357), NO -COX.

(358) , amentoflavone, -pseudohypericin.

(359).

 

 | 

 

II 2010  (Cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma) . , 6 , 24 . ( 0.05-0.1%)   , .

(360).

2008 . 34 , 21 (Basal cell carcinoma – BCC), (Actinic keratosis – AK) -5 (Squamous cell carcinoma – SCC). (0.07% ) 10 " 1 ", , , 6 . -50% -AK, -28% -BCC -40% . BCC . 11% BCC , -80% . (361).

 

(350), ( - - )(1).

, ROS , - / (362,363).

/ (362).

- (339,362-373)  (Mesothelioma) (374).

, -: , (375). ( 40-200 , ) , 3-5 , 2-6 .

 

()

 | 

 

(Ze 117) -, 43% . , 240 500 " Fluoxetine ( -SSRI’s) 6 ; , (299).

- 900 (LI 160) 4 , EEG. , , , (376).

 

cross-over - (377) 4 -12 , ( 2.7 ) ( EEG ), REM, MAO.  ( , , , ), .

13 , , 3 ( -0.5 )(378).

, 20 (LI 160) (600 1800 ) 7 , (276).

(polysomnogram) cross-over - 0.9 1.8 . , REM ( 15-40 ). (379).

 

   

- , (900 , 8 ) (5% 0.5%) (288)  .

, - (1,380); , (381-384) ( STAT-1alpha COX -LOX -iNOS(350,351), IL-6(408,409),  ROS (353)), - (385,386), (387), NMDA ( )(388), amyloid-beta (380,381,389).

(390,391), - () (392-394).

100 200 , (395,396), (nootropic, ), Piracetam ( GABA), .

 

  1. Mills & Bone - Principles and practice of Phytotherapy. Modern Herbal Medicine, 2ed. Churchill Livingstone, 2013
  2. Niesel S, Schilcher H. Arch Pharm Res. 1990;323:755.
  3. Ang CY, Hu L, Heinze TM, et al. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(20):6156–6164.
  4. Lehmann R. Personal Communication. MediHerb; 2004.
  5. Rey JM, Walter G. Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in depression: pest of blessing? Med. J. Austral., 169:583-586, 1998
  6. Linde K, Knuppel L. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(1–2):148–157.
  7. Knuppel L, Linde K. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65(11):1470–1479.
  8. Schulz V. Incidence and clinical relevance of the interactions and side effects of Hypericum preparations. Phytomedicine 2001;8:152-160.
  9. Davidson JRT, Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group JAMA. 2002;287(14): 1807–1814.
  10. Van Gurp G, Meterissian GB, Haiek LN, et al. Can Fam Physician. 2002;48:905–912.
  11. Schulz V. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 2000;89(50):2131–2140.
  12. Woelk H, Burkard G, Grunwald J. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1993;7 (suppl 1):S34–S38.
  13. Schakau D, Hiller K, Schultz-Zehden W, et al. Psychopharmakotherapie. 1996;3:116–122.
  14. Philipp M, Kohnen R, Hiller KO. BMJ. 1999;319:1534–1538.
  15. Gaster B, Holyroyd J. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:152–156.
  16. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al. JAMA. 2001;285(15):1978–1986.
  17. Guzelcan Y, Scholte WF, Assies J, et al. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001;145(40):1943–1945.
  18. Moses EL, Mallinger AG. St. John’s wort: three cases of possible mania induction. J. Clin. Psychopharml., 20(1):115-117, 2000
  19. Nierenberg AA, Burt T, Matthews J, et al. Mania associated with St. John's wort. Biol. Psychiatry, 46:1707- 1708, 1999
  20. O'Breasail AM, Argouarch S. Hypomania and St John's wort. Can. J. Psychiatry, 43:746-747, 1998
  21. Schneck C. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59(12):689.
  22. Fahmi M, Huang C, Schweitzer I. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2002;3(1):58–59.
  23. Spinella M, Eaton LA. Brain Inj. 2002;16(4):359–367.
  24. Holme SA, Roberts DL. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(5):1127–1128.
  25. Golsch S, Vocks E, Rakoski J, et al. Hautarzt. 1997;48(4):249–252.
  26. Cotterill JA. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2001;3(3):159–160.
  27. Brockmoller J, Reum T, Bauer S, et al. Hypericin and pseudohypericin: pharmacokinetics and effects on photosensitivity in humans. Pharmacopsych., 30:94-101, 1997
  28. Putnik K, Stadler P, Schafer C, et al. Enhanced radition sensitivity and radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) after hypericin therapy - case report and review of literature. Radiat. Oncol., 1:32, 2006
  29. Baille N. Modern Phytotherapist. 1997;3(2):24–26.
  30. Laird RD, Webb MJ. Herb Pharmacother. 2001;1(2):81–87.
  31. Lal S, Iskandar H. CMAJ. 2000;163(3):262–263.
  32. Shimizu K, Nakamura M, Isse K, et al. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004;19(4): 275–276.
  33. Ferko N, Levine MA. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(12):1574–1578.
  34. Hauben M. Pharmacotherapy. 2002;22(5):673–675.
  35. Bove GM. Acute neuropathy after exposure to sun in a patient treated with St John's Wort. Lancet. Oct 3 1998;352(9134):1121-1122.
  36. Zullino D, Borgeat F. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003;36(1):32.
  37. Patel S, Robinson R, Burk M. Am J Med. 2002;112(6):507–508.
  38. Dean AJ, Moses GM, Vernon JM. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(1):150.
  39. Cooper WC, James J. International Conference on AIDS, June 20–23, 1990;6(2):369. Abstract 2063.
  40. Jacobson JM, Feinman L, Liebes L, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001;45(2):517–524.
  41. [No authors listed]: TreatmentUpdate. 2001;12(11):4–5.
  42. Dominguez Jimenez JL, Pleguezuelo Navarro M, Guiote Malpartida S, et al. [Hepatotoxicity associated with Hypericum (St. John's wort)]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;30(1):54–55.
  43. Tran TL. Curr Clin Strateg. 1997;125(16):1022–1087.
  44. Assalian P. J Sex Marital Ther. 2000;26(4):357–358.
  45. Bhopal JS. Can J Psychiatry. 2001;46(5):456–457.
  46. Nanayakkara PW, Meijboom M, Schouten JA. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149(24):1347–1349.
  47. Lane-Brown MM. Med J Aust. 2000;172(6):302.
  48. Kasper S. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(suppl 1):S51–55.
  49. Lieberman S. J Womens Health. 1998;7(2):177–182.
  50. Trautmann-Sponsel RD, Dienel A. J Affect Disord. 2004;82(2):303–307.
  51. Hubner WD, Lande S, Podzuweit H. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7 (suppl 1):S12–14.
  52. Schmidt U, Sommer H. Fortschr Med. 1993;111(19):339–342.
  53. Sommer H, Harrer G. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl 1):S9–11.
  54. Schmidt U, Harrer G, Kuhn U, et al. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:314–319.
  55. Gulick RM, Mcauliffe V, Holden-Wiltse J, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(6): 510–514.
  56. Pitisuttithum P, Migasena S, Suntharasamai P, et al. International Conference on AIDS, July 7–12, 1996;11(1):285. Abstract Tu-B- 2121.
  57. Schempp CM, Winghofer B, Muller K, et al. Phytother Res. 2003;17(2):141–146.
  58. Schempp CM, Muller K, Winghofer B, et al. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137(4): 512–513.
  59. Roots I, Reum T, Brockmoller J, et al. 2nd International Congress on Phytomedicine, Munich, September 11–14, 1996.
  60. Campbell M, Delfosse E. J Aust Inst Agric Sci. 1984;50(2):63–73.5. Campbell M, Delfosse E. J Aust Inst Agric Sci. 1984;50(2):63–73.
  61. Southwell I, Campbell M. Phytochemistry. 1991;30:475–478.
  62. Araya OS, Ford EJ. J Comp Pathol. 1981;91(1):135–141.
  63. Seigers C, Biel S, Wilhelm K. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:320–322.
  64. Karalapillai DC, Bellomo R. Convulsions associated with an overdose of St John's wort. Med J Aust. 2007;186(4):213–214.
  65. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, et al. St. John’s wort for depression - an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Br. Med. J., 313:253-258, 1996
  66. Brooks S (ed.). Botanical toxicology. Protocol J. Bot. Med., 1(1):147-158, 1995
  67. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety, Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, St. Louis, 2005
  68. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 4th ed. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2010
  69. Ciocon JO, Ciocon DG, Galindo DJ. Geriatrics. 2004;59(9):20–24.
  70. Irefin S, Sprung J. A possible cause of cardiovascular collapse during anesthesia: long-term use of St. John's wort. J. Clin. Anesth., 12:498-499, 2000
  71. Murphy JM. Preoperative considerations with herbal medicines. Assoc. Operat. Room Nurses J., 69(1):173-183, 1999
  72. Koupparis LS. Harmless herbs: a cause for concern? Anaesthesia, 55:101-102, 2000
  73. Jackson SH. Danger alert – St. John's wort is monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Cal. Soc. Anesth. Bull., 48:53-54, 1998
  74. Crowe S, McKeating K. Delayed emergence and St. John's wort. Anesthesiol., 96:1025-1027, 2002
  75. Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan C-S. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA, 286(2):208-216, 2001
  76. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Int J Clin Pharmacol 391. Ther. 2004;42(9):473–480.
  77. Horsley C. J Pharmacol. 1934;50: 310–322.
  78. Okpanyi SN, Lidzba H, Scholl BC, et al. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40(8): 851–855.
  79. Scientific Committee of ESCOP. ESCOP Monographs: Hyperici Herba. Exeter: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy; 1996.
  80. Evstifeeva TA, Sibiriak SV. [The immunotropic properties of biologically active products obtained from Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum L.)]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 59:51-54, 1996.
  81. Zhou S, Chan E, Pan S-Q, et al. J Psychopharmacol. 2004;18(2):262–276.
  82. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, et al. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomed., 7(4):273-282, 2000
  83. Obach RS. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St. John’s wort, an herbal preparation used in the treatment of depression. J.Pharm. Exp. Ther., 294(1):88-95, 2000
  84. Crockett SL, Schaneberg B, Khan IA. Phytochem Anal. 2005;16(6):479–485.
  85. Kroll DJ, Shaw HS, Wall ME, et al. Altern Ther Health Med. 2001;7(6):21–22.
  86. Kim RB. Drugs as P-glycoprotein substrates, inhibitors, and inducers. Drug Metab. Rev., 34(1&2):47-54, 2002
  87. Mueller SC, Uehleke B, Woehling H, et al. Effect of St John's wort dose and preparations on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 75(6):546-557, 2004
  88. Wentworth JM, Agostini M, Love J, et al. J Endocrinol. 2000;166:R11–R16.
  89. Tian R, Koyabu N, Morimoto S, et al. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33(4): 547–554.
  90. Moore LB, Goodwin B, Jones SA, et al. St. John's wort induces hepatic drug metabolism through activation of the pregnane X receptor. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 97(13):7500-7502, 2000
  91. Roby CA, Anderson GD, Kantor E et al. St John’s wort: effect on CYP3A4 activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67:451-457.
  92. Rengelshausen J, Banfield M, Riedel K-D, et al. Opposite effects of short-term and long-term St John's wort intake on voriconazole pharmacokinetics. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 78:25-33, 2005
  93. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276-287.
  94. Wang L-S, Zhou G, Zhu B et al. St John’s wort induces both cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and 2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;75:191-197.
  95. Bell C, Ravis WR, Lloyd KB, et al. Effects of St. John's wort supplementation on ibuprofen pharmacokinetics. Ann. Pharmacother., 41:229-234, 2007
  96. Wang Z, Gorski JC, Hamman MA, et al. The effects of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on human cytochrome P450 activity. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 70:317-326, 2001
  97. Lilja JJ, Juntti-Patinen L, Neuvonen PJ. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the b-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 75:184-190, 2004
  98. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Clinical assessment of effects of botanical supplementation on cytochrome P450 phenotypes in the elderly. Drugs Aging, 22(6):525-539, 2005
  99. Arold G, Donath F, Maurer A, et al. No relevant interaction with alprazolam, caffeine, tolbutamide, and digoxin by treatment with a low-hyperforin St John’s wort extract. Planta Med., 71:331-337, 2005
  100. Wenk M, Todesco L, Krahenbuhl S. Effect of St John’s wort on the activities of CYP 1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2, and xanthine oxidase in healthy males and females. Br. J. Clin. Pharm., 57(4):495-499, 2004
  101. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Boulton DW et al. Effect of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) on cytochrome P-450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Life Sci 2000;66:L133-L139.
  102. Gerwertz N, Ereshefsky B, Lam Y et al. Determination of SJW differential metabolism at CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 using dextromethorphan probe technology. Abstracts from the 39th Annual Meeting, New Clinical Drug Evaluation Unit. Boca Raton, Fla; 1999:130.
  103. Mansky PJ, Straus SE. St. John’s wort: more implications for cancer patients. J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 94:1187- 1188, 2002
  104. Bauer S, Stormer E, Johne A, et al. Alterations in cyclosporin A pharmacokinetics and metabolism during treatment with St John's wort in renal transplant patients. Br. J. Clin. Pharm., 55:203-211, 2003
  105. Dresser GK, Schwarz UI, Wilkinson GR, et al. Coordiante induction of both cytochrome P4503A and MDR1 by St John's wort in healthy subjects. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 73:41-50, 2003
  106. Mai I, Bauer S, Perloff ES, et al. Hyperforin content determines the magnitude of the St John's wort-cyclosporine drug interaction. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 76:330-340, 2004
  107. Barone GW, Gurley BJ, Ketel BL, et al. Herbal supplements: a potential for drug interactions in transplant recipients. Transplant., 71(2):239-241, 2001
  108. Turton-Weeks SM, Barone GW, Gurley BJ, et al. St John's wort: a hidden risk for transplant patients. Prog. Transplant., 11(2):116-120, 2001
  109. Ruschitzka F, Meier PJ, Turina M, et al. Acute heart transplant rejection due to Saint John's wort. Lancet, 355:548-549, 2000
  110. Ernst E. Second thoughts about safety of St John's wort. Lancet, 354:2014-2015, 1999
  111. Moschella C, Jaber BL. Interaction between cyclosporine and Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) after organ transplantation. Am. J. Kidney Dis., 38(5):1105-1107, 2001
  112. Breidenbach T, Hoffmann MW, Becker T, et al. Lancet, 355:1912, 2000
  113. Breidenbach T, Kliem V, Burg M, et al. Profound drop of cyclosporin A whole blood trough levels caused by St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Transplant., 69(10):2229-2230, 2000
  114. Hebert MF, Park JM, Chen YL, et al. Effects of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 44:89-94, 2004
  115. Mai I, Stormer E, Bauer S, et al. Impact of St John's wort treatment on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid in renal transplant patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 18:819-822, 2003
  116. Bolley R, Zulke C, Kammerl M, et al. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity unmasked by induction of the CYP3A4 system with St. John's wort. Transplant., 73(6):1009, 2002
  117. Bon S, Hartmann K, Kuhn M. Schweiz Apoth. 1999;16:535–536.
  118. Ahmed SM, Banner NR, Dubrey SW. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001;20(7):795.
  119. Mai I, Kruger H, Budde K, et al. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;38(10):500–502.
  120. Karliova M, Treichel U, Malago M, et al. J Hepatol. 2000;33(5):853–855.
  121. Beer AM, Ostermann T. Med Klin. 2001;96(8):480–483.
  122. Henney JE. Risk of drug interactions with St. John's wort. JAMA, 283(13):1679, 2000
  123. Henderson L, Yue QY, Bergquist C, et al. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): drug interactions and clinical outcomes. Br. J. Clin. Pharm., 54:349-356, 2002
  124. Johne A, Brockmoller J, Bauer S, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction of digoxin with an herbal extract from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 66:338-345, 1999
  125. Gurley BJ, Swain A, Williams DK, et al. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb- drug ineractions: Comparative effects of St. John's wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Mol. Nut. Food Res., 52(7):772-779, 2008
  126. Durr D, Stieger B, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;68(6):598–604.
  127. Brattstrom A. Long-term effects of St. John's wot (Hypericum perforatum) treatment: A 1-year safety study in mild to moderate depression. Phytomed., 16:277-283, 2009
  128. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals – selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch. Intern. Med., 158:2200-2211, 1998
  129. Johne A, Schmider J, Brockmoller J, et al. Decreased plasma levels of amitriptyline and its metabolites on comedication with an extract from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). J. Clin. Psychopharm., 22(1):46-54, 2001
  130. Anon. St. John's wort: a growing list of harmful drug interactions. Health Lett., pp. 2-4, Apr., 2000
  131. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A (ed.). Botanical Safety Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1997
  132. Brown R. Potential interactions of herbal medicines with antipsychotics, antidepressants and hypnotics. Eur. J. Herb. Med., 3(2):25-28, 1997
  133. Rasmussen P. St. John's wort: A review of its use in depression. Aust. J. Med. Herb., 10(1):8-13, 1998
  134. Sinha A, Rao AR. Embryotoxicity of betel nuts in mice. Toxicol., 37:315-326, 1985
  135. Jefferson JW. Lithium tremor and caffeine intake: two cases of drinking less and shaking more. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 49:72-73, 1988
  136. Perovic S, Muller WEG. Pharmacological profile of Hypericum extract. Arzneim.-Forsch., 45:1145-1148, 1995
  137. Obertreis B, Giller K, Teucher T, et al. Antiphlogistic effects of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid. Arzneim.-Forsch., 46:52-56, 1996
  138. Obertreis B, Ruttkowski T, Teucher T, et al. Ex-vivo in-vitro inhibition of lipopolysaccharide stimulated tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-1b secretion in human whole blood by extractum Urticae dioicae foliorum. Arzneim.-Forsch., 46:389-394, 1996
  139. Gobbi M1, et al. Hypericum perforatum L. extract does not inhibit 5-HT transporter in rat brain cortex. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. (1999)
  140. Singer A1, Wonnemann M, Müller WE. Hyperforin, a major antidepressant constituent of St. John's Wort, inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na+1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. (1999)
  141. Gordon JB. SSRIs and St. John's wort: possible toxicity? Am. Fam. Phys., 57(5):950-951, 1998
  142. Waksman JC, Heard K, Joliff H, et al. Clin Toxicol. 2000;38:521.
  143. Lantz MS, Buchalter E, Giambanco V. St. John's wort and antidepressant drug interactions in the elderly. J. Ger. Psychiatry Neurol., 12:7-10, 1999
  144. Assalian P. Sildenafil for St. John wort-induced sexual dysfunction. J. Sex Marital Ther., 26:357-358, 2000
  145. Barbenel DM, Yusufi B, O’Shea D, et al. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14:84–86.
  146. Prost N, Tichadou L, Rodor F, et al. Presse Med. 2000;29(23):1285–1286.
  147. Fugh-Berman A. herb-drug interactions. Lancet, 355:134-138, 2000
  148. Dermott K. Clin Psychiatry News. 1998;26:28.
  149. Reichert RG. St. John's wort extract as a tricyclic medication substitute for mild to moderate depression. Quart. Rev. Nat. Med., pp. 275-278, Winter, 1995
  150. Milton JC, Abdulla A. Prolonged oro-facial dystonia in a 58 year old female following therapy with bupropion and St John's wort. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 64(5):717-718, 2007
  151. Jiang X, Blair EYL, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 46:1370-1378, 2006
  152. Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;57(5):592–599.
  153. Yue QY, Bergquist C, Gerden B. Safety of St John's wort. Lancet, 355:576-577, 2000
  154. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53(5):583–600.
  155. Uygur Bayramıçlı O, Kalkay MN, Oskay Bozkaya E, et al. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011;22(1):115.
  156. Maurer A, Johne A, Bauer S, et al. Interaction of St. John’s wort extract with phenprocoumon. Eur. J. Clin. Pharm., 55(3):A22, 1999
  157. Lau WC, Gurbel PA, Carville DG, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(9, Suppl 1):343A–344A.
  158. Lau WC, Welch TD, Shields TA, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(10, Suppl 1):A171. [E1600].
  159. Lau WC, Welch TD, Shields T, et al. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2011;57(1):86–93.
  160. Mathijssen RHJ, Verweij J, Bruijn P de, et al. Effects of St. John's wort on irinotecan metabolism. J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 94:1247-1249, 2002
  161. Smith PF, Bullock JM, Booker BM, et al. The influence of St. John's wort on the pharmacokinetics and protein binding of imatinib mesylate. Pharmacother., 24(11):1508-1514, 2004
  162. Frye RF, Fitzgerald SM, Lagattuta TF, et al. Effect of St John's wort on imatinib mesylate pharmacokinetics. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 76:323-329, 2004
  163. Kroll DJ. Catalytic inhibition of human DNA topisomerase II by hypericin, a naphthodianthrone from St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Biochem. Pharmacol., 62(8):1059-1070, 2001
  164. Gupta V, Su YS, Wang W, et al. Enhancement of glioblastoma cell killing by combination treatment with temozolomide and tamoxifen or hypericin. Neurosurg. Focus, 20(4):E20, 2006
  165. Xu H, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effects of St John's wort and CYP2C9 genotype on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gliclazide. Br. J. Pharmacol., 153:1579-1586, 2008
  166. Hruska MW, Cheong JA, Langaee TY, et al. Effect of St. John's wort administration on CYP2C8 mediated rosiglitazone metabolism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 77(2):P35, 2005
  167. Tannergren C, Engman H, Knutson L, et al. St John's wort decreases the bioavailability of R- and S-verapamil through induction of the first-pass metabolism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 75:298-309, 2004
  168. Smith M, Lin KM, Zheng YP. An open trial of nifedipine-herb interactions: nifedipine with St. John's wort, ginseng or Ginko [sic] biloba. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 69(2):P86, 2001
  169. Wang X-D, Li J-L, Lu Y, et al. Rapid and simultaneous determination of nifedipine and dehydronifedipine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to a clinical herb-drug interaction study. J. Chromatogr. B, 852:534-544, 2007
  170. Schwarz UI, Hanso H, Oertel R, et al. Induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein by St. John's wort reduces the oral bioavailability of talinolol. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 81(5):669-678, 2007
  171. Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. Media Release, March 2000.
  172. Breckenridge A. Message from Committee on Safety of Medicines, 29 February. London, 2000, Medicines Control Agency.
  173. Burstein AH, Horton RL, Dunn T, et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000;68(6): 605–612.
  174. Wang L-S, Zhu B, El-Aty A, et al. The influence of St. John's wort on CYP2C19 activity with respect to genotype. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 44:577-581, 2004
  175. Drug Safety Update. November 2007;1(4):p 7. Available from Accessed 18.04.08.
  176. Hall SD, Wang Z, Huang S-M, et al. The interaction between St John's wort and an oral contraceptive. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 74:525-535, 2003
  177. Gorski JC, Hamman MA, Wang Z, et al. The effect of St. John's wort on the efficacy of oral contraception. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 71(2):P25, 2002
  178. Schwarz UI, Buschel B, Kirch W. Unwanted pregnancy on self-medication with St John's wort despite hormonal contraception. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 55:112-113, 2003
  179. Information from the MPA (Medical Products Agency, Sweden) and the MCA (Medicines Control Agency, UK), 2000–2002.
  180. Murphy P, Bellows B, Kern S. Contraception. 2010;82(2):191.
  181. Pfrunder A, Schiesser M, Gerber S, et al. Interaction of St John's wort with low-dose oral contraceptive therapy: a randomized controlled trial. Br. J. Clin. Pharm., 56:683-690, 2003
  182. Murphy PA, Kern SE, Stanczyk FZ, et al. Interaction of St. John's wort with oral contraceptives: effects on the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol, ovarian activity and breakthrough bleeding. Contracept., 71:402-408, 2005
  183. Will-Shahab L, Bauer S, Kunter U, et al. St John's wort extract (Ze 117) does not alter the phamacokinetics of a low-dose oral contraceptive. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmaco., 65:287-294, 2009
  184. Fogle RH, Murphy PA, Westhoff CL, et al. Contraception. 2006;74(3):245–248.
  185. Kerb R, Bauer S, Brockmoller J, et al. Urinary 6 b-hydroxycortisol excretion rate is affected by treatment with hypericum extract. Eur. J. Clin. Pharm., 52(Suppl.):A186, 1997
  186. Bauer S, Stormer E, Kerb R, et al. Differential effects of Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on the urinary excretion of d-glucaric acid and 6-beta-hydroxycortisol in healthy volunteers. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 58:581-585, 2002
  187. Bell EC, Ravis WR, Chan HM, et al. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between St. John's wort and prednisone. Ann. Pharmacother., 41:1819-1824, 2007
  188. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, et al. Effect of St John's wort on drug metabolism by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. JAMA, 290(11):1500-1504, 2003
  189. Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Boulton DW, et al. Effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on cytochrome P-450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Life Sci., 66(9):PL133-PL139, 2000
  190. Mueller SC, Majcher-Peszynska J, Uehleke B, et al. The extent of induction of CYP3A by St. John's wort varies among products and is linked to hyperforin dose. Eur. J. Clin. Phamacol., 62:29-36, 2006
  191. Gorski JC, Hamman MA, Wang Z, et al. The effect of St. John's wort on the efficacy of oral contraception. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 71(2):P25, 2002
  192. Xie R, Tan L, Polasek EC, et al. CYP3A and P-glycoprotein induction with St. John's wort in healthy volunteers of selected ethnic populations. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 73(2):P93, 2003
  193. Mueller SC, Peszynska JM, Mundkowski RG, et al. No clinically relevant CYP3A induction after St. John's wort with low hyperforin content in healthy volunteers. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 65:81-87, 2009
  194. Kawaguch A, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S,et al. Drug interaction between St John's wort and quazepam. Br. J. Clin. Pharm., 58(4):403-410, 2004
  195. Hojo Y, Echizenya M, Ohkubo T, et al. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011;36(6):711–715.
  196. Sugimoto K, Ohmori M, Tsuruoka S, et al. Different effects of St John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of simvastatin and pravastatin. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 70:518-524, 2001
  197. Andren L, Andreasson A, Eggertsen R. Interaction between a commercially available St. John's wort product (Movina) and atorvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eur. J. Clin. Pharm., 63:913-916, 2007
  198. Gordon RY, Becker DJ, Radre DJ. Reduced efficacy of rosuvastatin by St. John's wort. Am. J. Med., 122(2):1e-2e, 2009
  199. Eggertsen R, Andreasson A, Andren L. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2007;25(3):154–159.
  200. Niederhofer H. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1189.
  201. Portoles A, Terleira A, Calvo A, et al. Effects of Hypericum perforatum on ivabradine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: an open-label, pharmacokinetic interaction clinical trial. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 46:1188-1194, 2006
  202. 1.Nebel A, Schneider BJ, Baker RK, et al. Potential metabolic interaction between St. John's wort and theophylline. Ann. Pharmacother., 33:502, 1999
  203. 2.Morimoto T, Kotegawa T, Tsutsumi K, et al. Effect of St. John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 44:95-101, 2004
  204. Wang Z, Hamman MA, Huang S-M, et al. Effect of St John's wort on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 71:414-420, 2002
  205. de Maat MMR, Hoetelmans RMW, Mathot RAA, et al. Drug interaction between St. John's wort and nevirapine. AIDS, 15(3):420-421, 2001
  206. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Chaitt D, et al. Indinavir concentrations and St. John's wort. Lancet, 355:547-548, 2000
  207. Rengelshausen J, Banfield M, Riedel K-D, et al. Opposite effects of short-term and long-term St John's wort intake on voriconazole pharmacokinetics. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 78:25-33, 2005
  208. Durr D, Stieger B, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. St John's wort induces intestinal P-glycoprotein/MDR1 and intestinal and hepatic CYP3A4. Clin.Pharmacol. Ther., 68:598-604, 2000
  209. Lundahl A, Hedeland M, Bondesson U, et al. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;36(4–5): 433–443.
  210. Eich-Hochli D, Oppliger R, Golay KP, et al. Methadone maintenance treatment and St. John's wort. Pharmacopsych., 36:35-37, 2003
  211. Nieminen TH, Hagelberg NM, Saari TI, et al. Eur J Pain. 2010;14(8):854–859.
  212. Ladner DP, Klein SD, Steiner RA, et al Synertgistic toxicity of d-aminolaevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX used for photodiagnosis and hypericum extract, a herbal supplement. Br. J. Derm., 144:916-918, 2001
  213. Wang L-S, Zhou G, Zhu B, et al. St John's wort induces both cytochrome P450 3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and 2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 75:191-197, 2004
  214. Brinker F. “Botanical Medicine Research Summaries,” from Eclectic Dispensatory of Botanical Therapeutics, vol. II. Eclectic Medical Pub., Sandy, Ore., 1995
  215. Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS, Cordell GA, et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J. Pharm. Sci., 64:535-598, 1975
  216. Moerman DE. Native American Ethnobotany, Timber Press, Portland, Ore., 1999
  217. Moretti ME, Maxson A, Hanna F, et al. Evaluating the safety of St. John's Wort in human pregnancy. Reprod. Toxicol., 28:96-99, 2009
  218. Psychotonin M Product Information, Steigerwald Arzneimittelwerk GmbH, Darmstadt, 1992.
  219. Rayburn WF, Gonzalez CL, Christensen HD, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(2):191–195.
  220. Leuschner J. 2nd International Congress on Phytomedicine, Munich, September 11–14, 1996. Abstract SL 80.
  221. Gregoretti B, Stebel M, Candussio L, et al. Toxicity of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) administered during pregnancy and lactation in rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 200:201-205, 2004
  222. Klier CM, Schafer MR, Schmid-Siegel B, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35(1): 29–30.
  223. Klier CM, Schmid–Siegel B, Schafer MR, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(2):305– 309.
  224. Lee A, Minhas R, Ito S. Safety of St. John's wort during breastfeeding. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 67(2):130, 2000
  225. Lee A, Minhas R, Matsuda N, et al. The safety of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) during breastfeeding. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 64(8):966-968, 2003
  226. Linde K, Mulrow CD. Cochrane Database Sys Rev Abstracts. 2000;2:CD000448.
  227. Linde K, Ramirez G, Mulrow CD, et al. Br Med J. 1996;313:253–258.
  228. Kim HL, Streltzer J, Goebert D. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187(9):532–538.
  229. Linde K, Berner MM, Kriston L. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;4:CD000448.
  230. Roder C, Schaefer M, Leucht S. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2004;72(6):330–343.
  231. Whiskey E, Werneke U, Taylor D. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;16(5):239–252.
  232. Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(1):118–127.
  233. Josey ES, Tackett RL. Intl J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999;37(3): 111–119.
  234. Nangia M, Syed W, Doraiswamy PM. Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(4A): 487–494.
  235. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999;9(6): 501–505.
  236. Kalb R, Trautmann-Sponsel RD, Kieser M. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(3):96–103.
  237. Kasper S, Anghelescu IG, Szegedi A, et al. BMC Med. 2006;4:14.
  238. Lecrubier Y, Clerc G, Didi R, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(8):1361–1366.
  239. Schrader E. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(2):61–68.
  240. Uebelhack R, Gruenwald J, Graubaum HJ, et al. Adv Ther. 2004;21(4):265–275.
  241. Witte B, Harrer G, Kaptan T, et al. Fortschr Med. 1995;113(28):404–408.
  242. Bjerkenstedt L, Edman GV, Alken RG, et al. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;255(1):40–47.
  243. Fava M, Alpert J, Nierenberg AA, et al. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25(5): 441–447.
  244. Gastpar M, Singer A, Zeller K. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006;39(2):66–75.
  245. Behnke K, Jensen GS, Graubaum HJ, et al. Advances in Therapy. 2002;19(1):43–52. 270. Brenner R, Azbel V, Madhusoodanan S, et al. Clin Ther. 2000;4:411–419.
  246. Vorbach EU, Arnoldt KH, Hubner WD. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30 (suppl 2):81–85.
  247. Wheatley D. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl 2):77–80.
  248. Woelk H. BMJ. 2000;321:535–539.
  249. Gastpar M, Singer A, Zeller K. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2005;38(2):78–86.
  250. Harrer G, Schmidt U, Kuhn U, et al. Arzneimittelforschung/Drug Res. 1999;49(4):289–296.
  251. Szegedi A, Kohnen R, Dienel A, et al. BMJ. 2005;330(7490):503.
  252. Murck H, Fava M, Alpert J, et al. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;8(2):215–221.
  253. Vorbach EU, Hübner WD, Arnoldt KH. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:290–296.
  254. Kasper S, Gastpar M, Muller WE, et al. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;258(1):59–63.
  255. Randlov C, Mehlsen J, Thomsen CF, et al. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(4):215–221.
  256. Anghelescu IG, Kohnen R, Szegedi A, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006;39(6):213–219.
  257. Singer A, Schmidt M, Hauke W, et al. Phytomedicine. 2011;18(8–9):739–742.
  258. Mannel M, Kuhn U, Schmidt U, et al. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(12):760–767.
  259. Brattstrom A. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(4): 277–283.
  260. Kasper S, Caraci F, Forti B, et al. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;20(11): 747–765.
  261. Russo E, Scicchitano F. et al. Hypericum perforatum: pharmacokinetic, mechanism of action, tolerability, and clinical drug-drug interactions. Phytother Res. 2014 May;28(5):643-55.
  262. Hubner WD, Kirste T. Phytother Res. 2001;15(4):367–370.
  263. Findling RL, McNamara NK, O’Riordan MA, et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(8):908–914.
  264. Simeon J, Nixon MK, Milin R, et al. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005;15(2):293–301.
  265. Wheatley D. Curr Med Res Opin. 1999;15(1):33–37.
  266. Martinez B, Kasper S, Ruhrmann B, et al. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:302–307.
  267. Kasper S. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl 2):89–93.
  268. Muller W. 2nd International Congress on Phytomedicine. Munich, September 11–14, 1996.
  269. Muller WE, Rolli M, Schafer C, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl 2):102–107.
  270. Perovic S, Muller WE. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45(11): 1145–1148.
  271. Caccia S, Gobbi M. Curr Drug Metab. 2009;10(9):1055–1065.
  272. Dimpfel W, Todorova A, Vonderheid-Guth B. Eur J Med Res. 1999;4(8):303–312.
  273. Schüle C, Baghai T, Ferrera A, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(suppl 1):S127–133.
  274. Franklin M, Chi J, Mcgavin C, et al. Biol Materia Medica Psychiatry. 1999;46(4):581–584.
  275. Franklin M, Cowen PJ. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(suppl 1):S29–37.
  276. Franklin M, Hafizi S, Reed A, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006;39(1):13–15.
  277. Schule C, Baghai T, Sauer N, et al. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;49(2):58–63.
  278. Schroeder C, Tank J, Goldstein DS, et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;76(5): 480–489.
  279. Butterweck V, Wall A, Lieflander-Wulf U, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30 (suppl 2):117–124.
  280. Butterweck V, Petereit F, Winterhoff H, et al. Planta Med. 1998;64(4):291–294.
  281. Butterweck V, Winterhoff H, Herkenham M. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6(5):547–564.
  282. Butterweck V, Nahrstedt A, Evans J, et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;162(2):193–202.
  283. Muller WE, Singer A, Wonnemann M. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34 (suppl 1):S98–102.
  284. Chatterjee SS, Bhattacharya SK, Wonnemann M, et al. Life Sci. 1998;63(6):499–510.
  285. Singer A, Wonnemann M, Muller WE. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;290(3): 1363–1368.
  286. Laakmann G, Schule C, Baghai T, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(suppl 1): 54–59.
  287. Chatterjee SS, Noldner M, Koch E, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(suppl 1):7–15.
  288. Schellenberg R, Sauer S, Dimpfel W. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31(suppl 1): 44–53.
  289. Butterweck V, Jurgenliemk G, Nahrstedt A, et al. Planta Med. 2000;66(1):3–6.
  290. Butterweck V, Hegger M, Winterhoff H. Planta Med. 2004;70(10):1008–1011.
  291. Reichling J, Hostanska K, Saller R. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003;10(suppl 1):28–32.
  292. Schulte-Lobbert S, Holoubek G, Muller WE, et al. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004;56(6):813–818.
  293. Madabushi R, Frank B, Drewelow B, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62(3):225–233.
  294. Butterweck V, Schmidt M. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13–14):356–361.
  295. Volz HP, Murck H, Kasper S, et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;164(3):294–300.
  296. Muller T, Mannel M, Murck H, et al. Psychosom Med. 2004;66(4):538–547.
  297. Davidson JR, Connor KM. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001;21(6):635–636.
  298. Kobak KA, Taylor L, Futterer R, et al. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;23(5):531–532.
  299. Friede M, Henneicke Von Zepelin HH, Freudenstein J. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34(suppl 1):S38–41.
  300. Sarris J, Kavanagh DJ, Deed G, Bone KM. St. John's wort and Kava in treating major depressive disorder with comorbid anxiety: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(1):41–48.
  301. Kobak KA, Taylor LV, Warner G, et al. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25(1):51–58.
  302. Taylor LH, Kobak KA. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(8):575–578.
  303. Kobak KA, Taylor LV, Bystritsky A, et al. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;20(6):299–304.
  304. Kumar V, Jaiswal AK, Singh PN, et al. Indian J Exp Biol. 2000;38(1):36–41.
  305. Coleta M, Campos MG, Cotrim MD, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34 (suppl 1):S20–21.
  306. Kumar V, Singh PN, Bhattacharya SK. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39(4):344–349.
  307. Flausino Jr. OA, Zangrossi Jr. H, Salgado JV, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;71(1–2):251–257.
  308. Beijamini V, Andreatini R. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;74(4):1015–1024.
  309. Beijamini V, Andreatini R. Pharmacol Res. 2003;48(2):199–207.
  310. Vandenbogaerde A, Zanoli P, Puia G, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000;65(4):627–633.
  311. Bano S, Dawood S. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2008;21(1):63–69.
  312. Ara I, Bano S. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009;22(1):94–101.
  313. Liu YR, Jiang YL, Huang RQ et al. Hypericum perforatum L. preperations for menopause: a meta-anlysis f efficacy and safety. Climacteric. 2014 Aug;17(4):325-35
  314. Laakmann E, Grajecki D, et al. Efficacy of Cimicifuga racemosa, Hypericum perforatum and Agnus castus in the treatment of climacteric complaints: a systemic review. Gyneci Endocrinol. 2012 Sep;28(9):703-9
  315. Abdali K, Khajehei M, Tabatabaee HR. Menopause. 2010;17(2):326–331.
  316. Al-Akoum M, Maunsell E, Verreault R, et al. Menopause. 2009;16(2):307–314.
  317. Chung DJ, Kim HY, Park KH, et al. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48(2):289–294.
  318. Briese V, Stammwitz U, Friede M, et al. Maturitas. 2007;57(4):405–414.
  319. Warnecke G. Z Allg Med. 1986;62: 1111–1113.
  320. Uebelhack R, Blohmer JU, Graubaum HJ, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107 (2 Pt 1):247–255.
  321. Boblitz N, Schrader E, Henneicke-Von-Zepelin H-H, et al. FACT. 2000;5(1):83–107.
  322. Grube B, Walper A, Wheatley MD. Adv Ther. 1999;16(4):177–186.
  323. Van Die MD, Burger HG, Bone KM, et al. Menopause. 2009;16(1):156–163.
  324. Ghazanfarpour M, Kaviani M, Asadi N, et al. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;113(1):84–85.
  325. Canning S, Waterman M, Orsi N, et al. CNS Drugs. 2010;24(3):207–225.
  326. Pak Gouhar M, Mehran A, Ahmadi M, et al. J Med Plants Res. 2005;4(15)
  327. Hicks SM, Walker AF, Gallagher J, et al. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10(6): 925–932.
  328. Van Die MD, Bone KM, Burger HG, et al. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(9):1045–1048.
  329. Huang KL, Tsai SJ. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2003;33(3):295–297.
  330. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;107(7):870–876.
  331. Falahatkar S, Asgari SA, Hosseini Sharifi SH, et al. J Guilan Uni Med Sci. 2009;18(69):53–58.
  332. Kaufman TWC-SJH. Internet J Nutr Wellness. 2007;3(2).
  333. Kim DK, Chancellor MB. Int Braz J Urol. 2008;34(3):370–371.
  334. Mannel M, Koytchev R, Dundarov S. Paper presented at the 3rd International Congress on Phytomedicine, Munich, October 11–13 2000 (SL–25).
  335. Koytchev R, Alken RG, Dundarov S. Z Phytother. 1999;20:92.
  336. Clewell A, Barnes M, et al. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum on patients with herpes skin lesions: a comparative, randomized controlled trial. J Drugs Dermatol. 2012 Feb;11(2):209-15.
  337. Tang J, Colacino J, Larsen S, et al. Antiviral Res. 1990;13(6):313–325.
  338. Lavie G, Mazur Y, Lavie D, et al. Transfusion. 1995;35(5):392–400.
  339. Kubin A, Wierrani F, Burner U, et al. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(2):233–253.
  340. Andersen D, Weber N, Wood S, et al. Antiviral Res. 1991;16(2):185–196.
  341. Lopez-Bazzocchi I, Hudson J, Towers G. Photochem Photobiol. 1991;54(1):95–98.
  342. Moraleda G, Wu T, Jilbert A, et al. Antiviral Res. 1993;20:235–247.
  343. Hudson J, Harris L, Towers G. Antiviral Res. 1993;20(2):173–178.
  344. Carpenter S, Kraus G. Photochem Photobiol. 1991;53(2):169–174.
  345. Samadi S, Khadivzadeh T, Emami A, et al. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(1):113–117.
  346. Lavagna SM, Secci D, Chimenti P, et al. Farmaco. 2001;56(5–7):451–453.
  347. Läuchli S, Vannotti S, Hafner J, Hunziker T, French L. A plant-derived wound therapeutic for cost-effective treatment of post-surgical scalp wounds with exposed bone. Forsch Komplementmed. 2014;21(2):88-93
  348. Mainetti S, Carnevali F. An experience with paediatric burn wounds treated with a plant-derived wound therapeutic. J Wound Care. 2013 Dec;22(12):681-2, 684-5, 688-9.
  349. Schempp CM, Windeck T, Hezel S, et al. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(suppl 4):31–37.
  350. Albert D, Zundorf I, Dingermann T, et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64(12): 1767–1775.
  351. Feisst C, Pergola C, Rakonjac M, et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66(16):2759–2771.
  352. Raso GM, Pacilio M, Di Carlo G, et al. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2002;544(10): 1379–1383.
  353. Feisst C, Werz O. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67(8):1531–1539.
  354. Tedeschi E, Menegazzi M, Margotto D, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;307(1):254–261.
  355. Gurumadhva Rao S, Laxminarayana Udupa A, Saraswathi Udupa L, et al. Fitoterapia. 1991;62(6):508–510.
  356. Ozturk N, Korkmaz S, Ozturk Y. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;111(1):33–39.
  357. Sosa S, Pace R, Bornancin A, et al. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007;59(5):703–709.
  358. Capasso R, Borrelli F, Capasso F, et al. Urology. 2004;64(1):168–172.
  359. Süntar IP, Akkol EK, Yilmazer D, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(2):468–477.
  360. Rook AH, Wood GS, Duvic M, Vonderheid EC, Tobia A, Cabana B. A phase II placebo-controlled study of photodynamic therapy with topical hypericin and visible light irradiation in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;63(6):984–990.
  361. Kacerovska D, Pizinger K, Majer F, et al. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84(3): 779–785.
  362. Karioti A, Bilia AR. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11(2):562–594.
  363. Agostinis P, Vantieghem A, Merlevede W, et al. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34(3):221–241.
  364. Hopfner M, Maaser K, Theiss A, et al. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2003;18(3):239–247.
  365. Stavropoulos NE, Kim A, Nseyo UU, et al. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2006;84(1):64–69.
  366. Berlanda J, Kiesslich T, Oberdanner CB, et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2006;25(1–2):173–188.
  367. Kamuhabwa A, Agostinis P, Ahmed B, et al. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2004;3(8):772–780.
  368. Davids LM, Kleemann B, Cooper S, et al. Cell Biol Int. 2009;33(10):1065–1072.
  369. Davids LM, Kleemann B, Kacerovska D, et al. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2008;91 (2–3):67–76.
  370. Chen B, Xu Y, Roskams T, et al. Int J Cancer. 2001;93(2):275–282.
  371. Chen B, Zupko I, De Witte PA. Int J Oncol. 2001;18(4):737–742.
  372. Chen B, Roskams T, Xu Y, et al. Int J Cancer. 2002;98(2):284–290.
  373. Vandenbogaerde A, De Witte P. Anticancer Res. 1995;15(5(A)):1757–1758.
  374. Koren H, Schenk GM, Jindra RH, et al. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1996;36(2): 113–119.
  375. Alecu M, Ursaciuc C, Hãlãlãu F, et al. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(6B):4651–4654.
  376. Schulz H, Jobert M. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl 1):S39–43.
  377. Schulz H, Jobert M. Nervenheilkunde. 1993;12:323–327.
  378. Demisch L, Sielaff T, Nispel J, et al. AGNP Symposium, 1991. Cited in Scientific Committee of ESCOP. ESCOP Monographs: Hyperici Herba. Exeter: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy; 1996.
  379. Sharpley AL, Mcgavin CL, Whale R, et al. Psychopharmacology. 1998;139(3):286–287.
  380. Griffith TN, Varela-Nallar L, Dinamarca MC, et al. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(5):391–406.
  381. Dinamarca MC, Cerpa W, Garrido J, et al. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11(11):1032–1048.
  382. Silva BA, Ferreres F, Malva JO, et al. Food Chem. 2005;90(1–2):157–167.
  383. Hunt EJ, Lester CE, Lester EA, et al. Life Sci. 2001;69(2):181–190.
  384. El-Sherbiny DA, Khalifa AE, Attia AS, et al. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;76(3–4):525–533.
  385. Breyer A, Elstner M, Gillessen T, et al. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(4):250–255.
  386. Cerpa W, Hancke JL, Morazzoni P, et al. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2010;7(2):126–133.
  387. Kiewert C, Buchholzer ML, Hartmann J, et al. Neurosci Lett. 2004;364(3):195–198.
  388. Kumar V, Mdzinarishvili A, Kiewert C, et al. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006;102(1):47–54.
  389. Kraus B, Wolff H, Heilmann J, et al. Life Sci. 2007;81(11):884–894.
  390. Klusa V, Germane S, Nöldner M, et al. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34 (suppl 1):61–69.
  391. Khalifa AE. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(1):49–57.
  392. Trofimiuk E, Walesiuk A, Braszko JJ. Pharmacol Res. 2005;51(3):239–246.
  393. Trofimiuk E, Braszko JJ. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;376(6):463–471.
  394. Trofimiuk E, Holownia A, Braszko J. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383(4):415–422.
  395. Kumar V, Singh PN, Muruganandam AV, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72 (1–2):119–128.
  396. Rayburn WF, Christensen HD, Gonzalez CL. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(5):1225–1231.
  397. Micioni Di Bonaventura MV, Vitale G, Massi M, Cifani C. Effect of Hypericum perforatum Extract in an Experimental Model of Binge Eating in Female Rats. J Obes. 2012;2012:956137. Epub 2012 Sep 10.
  398. Cifani C, Micioni Di B MV, Vitale G, Ruggieri V, Ciccocioppo R, Massi M. Effect of salidroside, active principle of Rhodiola rosea extract, on binge eating. Physiol Behav. 2010 Dec 2;101(5):555-62. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
  399. Stage TB, Damkier P, Christensen MM, Nielsen LB, Højlund K, Brøsen K. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print]
  400. Stage TB, Pedersen RS, Damkier P, Christensen MM, Feddersen S, Larsen JT, Højlund K, Brøsen K. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Feb;79(2):298-306.
  401. Franco P, et al. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil for the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation or chemo-radiation: a single-arm prospective observational study. Radiat Oncol. 2014 Dec 29;9:297.  
  402. Markert C, et al. The effect of induction of CYP3A4 by St John's wort on ambrisentan plasma pharmacokinetics in volunteers of known CYP2C19 genotype. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2015 May;116(5):423-8. Epub 2014 Nov 8.
  403. Hoban CL, Byard RW, Musgrave IF. A comparison of patterns of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting with St. John's Wort and fluoxetine during the period 2000-2013. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2015 Jul;42(7):747-51
  404. Kolding L, Pedersen LH, Henriksen TB, Olsen J, Grzeskowiak LE. Hypericum perforatum use during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome Reprod Toxicol. 2015 Dec;58:234-7. 
  405. Collado-Borrell R, Escudero-Vilaplana V, Romero-Jiménez R, Iglesias-Peinado I, Herranz-Alonso A, Sanjurjo-Sáez M. Oral antineoplastic agent interactions with medicinal plants and food: an issue to take into account. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016 Nov;142(11):2319-30
  406. Seifritz E, Hatzinger M, Holsboer-Trachsler E. Efficacy of Hypericum extract WS(®) 5570 compared with paroxetine in patients with a moderate major depressive episode - a subgroup analysis. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2016 Sep;20(3):126-32. 
  407. Butterweck, V. Mechanism of action of St John's wort in depression : what is known? CNS Drugs, 2003, 17, 539-62.
  408. Tedeschi, E.; Menegazzi, M.; Margotto, D.; Suzuki, H.; Förstermann, U.; Kleinert, H. Anti-inflammatory actions of St. John's wort: inhibition of human inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression by down-regulating signal transducer and activator of transcription-1alpha (STAT-1alpha) activation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 2003, 307, 254-61
  409. Barreto GE, Avila-Rodriguez M, Foitzick M, Aliev G, Echeverria V. Advances in Medicinal Plants with Effects on Anxiety Behavior Associated to Mental and Health Conditions.
    Curr Med Chem. 2017;24(4):411-423. 
  410. Ng QX, Venkatanarayanan N, Ho CY. Clinical use of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s wort) in depression: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017 Mar 1;210:211-221. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28064110